Abstract. The Gram-negative bacteria genus Neisseria includes both pathogenic and commensal species that are found primarily in the upper respiratory tract of humans and animals. The development of animal models to study neisserial pathogenesis has focused almost exclusively on two species that cause disease in humans.
Many normal individuals may harbor Neisseria meningitidis in the upper respiratory tract, but Neisseria gonorrhoeae is never part of the normal flora and is only found after sexual contact with an infected person (or direct contact, in the case of infections in the newborn).
Additionally, where are Neisseria found as normal flora? Neisseria are aerobic gram-negative diplococci belonging to the family Neisseriaceae, which mainly colonize the human oral cavity and nasopharynx. Most Neisseria are members of the normal microflora of the human body and are usually nonpathogenic.
Also to know is, where is Neisseria meningitidis normally found in the body?
N. meningitidis is a part of the normal nonpathogenic flora in the nasopharynx of up to 5–15% of adults. It colonizes and infects only humans, and has never been isolated from other animals.
How do you identify Neisseria?
N. meningitidis can be identified using Kovac’s oxidase test and carbohydrate utilization. If the oxidase test is positive, carbohydrate utilization testing should be performed. If the carbohydrate utilization test indicates that the isolate may be N.
How does Neisseria gonorrhoeae enter the body?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is only found after sexual contact with an infected person (or in the case of infections in the newbord, direct contact). After the bacteria attach to the nonciliated epithelial cells of the fallopian tube, they are surrounded by the microvilli that draw them to the surface of the mucosal cell.
What disease is caused by Neisseria?
The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, also called meningococcus, causes meningococcal meningitis. In children and teens, meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. Your risk for meningococcal meningitis increases if you are exposed to the bacterium that causes it.
What type of bacteria is Neisseria?
Neisseria species are Gram-negative bacteria included among the proteobacteria, a large group of Gram-negative forms. Neisseria diplococci resemble coffee beans when viewed microscopically.
What does Neisseria mean?
Medical Definition of Neisseria : a genus (the type of the family Neisseriaceae) of parasitic bacteria that grow in pairs and occasionally tetrads, thrive best at 98.6°F (37°C) in the animal body or serum media, and include the gonococcus (N. gonorrhoeae) and meningococcus (N. meningitidis)
How is Neisseria meningitidis transmitted?
People spread meningococcal bacteria to other people by sharing respiratory and throat secretions (saliva or spit). Generally, it takes close (for example, coughing or kissing) or lengthy contact to spread these bacteria. Fortunately, they are not as contagious as germs that cause the common cold or the flu.
How is gonorrhea spread?
Gonorrhea is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread perinatally from mother to baby during childbirth.
What are the characteristics of Neisseria?
CHARACTERISTICS: Neisseria gonorrhoeae belongs to the genus Neisseria within the family Neisseriaceae 2. It is a Gram-negative, non-spore forming, non-motile, encapsulated, and non acid-fast bacteria, which appear in kidney bean shape under the microscope 1.
What media does Neisseria gonorrhoeae grow on?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the causatives of sexually transmitted diseases, and it is a fastidious organism. This organism is typically cultured using an agar medium such as chocolate agar plate (GCII agar base with 1% IsoVitaleX [BBL] and purified hemoglobin).
How is Neisseria meningitidis diagnosed?
Diagnosis. Initial diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis can be made by clinical examination followed by a lumbar puncture showing a purulent spinal fluid. The bacteria can sometimes be seen in microscopic examinations of the spinal fluid.
Who is at risk for Neisseria meningitidis?
Anyone at any age can get meningococcal disease, but some people have a higher risk for the disease. These include: Adolescents and young adults* Infants less than one year old.
Is Neisseria meningitidis airborne?
Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread from person to person by inhaling airborne droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes or just by close contact. In many cases, the bacteria is spread by infected individuals that are carriers of Neisseria meningitidis, but do not show any symptoms.
How is meningitis contracted?
In many cases, bacterial meningitis starts when bacteria get into your bloodstream from your sinuses, ears, or throat. The bacteria travel through your bloodstream to your brain. The bacteria that cause meningitis can spread when people who are infected cough or sneeze.
How do you prevent meningococcal?
Meningococcal meningitis is usually spread through contact with the saliva or nasal secretions of an infected person. Try to avoid sharing drinks, eating utensils, or other items that may contain saliva. Also, don’t engage in open-mouthed kissing with an infected person.
What does meningococcal rash look like?
Meningococcal bacteria reproduce in the bloodstream and release poisons (septicemia). As the infection progresses, blood vessels can become damaged. This can cause a faint skin rash that looks like tiny pinpricks. The spots may be pink, red, or purple.